bayesian statistics example


I haven't seen this example anywhere else, but please let me know if similar things have previously appeared "out there". f(y_i | \theta, \tau) = \sqrt(\frac{\tau}{2 \pi}) \times exp\left( -\tau (y_i - \theta)^2 / 2 \right) No Starch Press. Bayesian search theory is an interesting real-world application of Bayesian statistics which has been applied many times to search for lost vessels at sea. Thomas Bayes(1702‐1761) BayesTheorem for probability events A and B Or for a set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive events (i.e. Is it ok for me to ask a co-worker about their surgery? Comparing a Bayesian model with a Classical model for linear regression. How to tell the probability of failure if there were no failures? Bayesian statistics uses an approach whereby beliefs are updated based on data that has been collected. Bayesian data analysis (2nd ed., Texts in statistical science). Starting with version 25, IBM® SPSS® Statistics provides support for the following Bayesian statistics. Not strictly an answer but when you flip a coin three times and head comes up two times then no student would believe, that head was twice as likely as tails.That is pretty convincing although certainly not real research. Bayesian statistics is a theory in the field of statistics based on the Bayesian interpretation of probability where probability expresses a degree of belief in an event. In a Bayesian perspective, we append maximum likelihood with prior information. You assign a probability of seeing this person as 0.85. I bet you would say Niki Lauda. How can dd over ssh report read speeds exceeding the network bandwidth? How to animate particles spraying on an object. Bayes Theorem Bayesian statistics named after Rev. You update the probability as 0.36. I realize Bayesians can use "non-informative" priors too, but I am particularly interested in real examples where informative priors (i.e. When you have normal data, you can use a normal prior to obtain a normal posterior. Life is full of uncertainties. The probability of an event is equal to the long-term frequency of the event occurring when the same process is repeated multiple times. In addition, your estimate of $\theta$ in this model is a weighted average between the empirical mean and prior information. I was thinking of this question lately, and I think I have an example where bayesian make sense, with the use a prior probability: the likelyhood ratio of a clinical test. 2. In this analysis, the researcher (you) can say that given data + prior information, your estimate of average wind, using the 50th percentile, speeds should be 10.00324, greater than simply using the average from the data. An Introduction to Empirical Bayes Data Analysis. Here’s the twist. The (admittedly older) Frequentist literature deals with a lot of these issues in a very ad-hoc manner and offers sub-optimal solutions: "pick regions of $x$ that you think should lead to both 0's and 1's, take samples until the MLE is defined, and then use the MLE to choose $x$". Why are weakly informative priors a good idea? real prior information) are used. What Bayes tells us is. The Bayesian paradigm, unlike the frequentist approach, allows us to make direct probability statements about our models. In a Bayesian perspective, we append maximum likelihood with prior information. P(A) – the probability of event A 4. It calculates the degree of belief in a certain event and gives a probability of the occurrence of some statistical problem. A choice of priors for this Normal data model is another Normal distribution for θ. Gelman, A. Mathematical statistics uses two major paradigms, conventional (or frequentist), and Bayesian. It’s impractical, to say the least.A more realistic plan is to settle with an estimate of the real difference. Say you wanted to find the average height difference between all adult men and women in the world. Would you measure the individual heights of 4.3 billion people? In the logistic regression setting, a researcher is trying to estimate a coefficient and is actively collecting data, sometimes one data point at a time. “Bayesian methods better correspond to what non-statisticians expect to see.”, “Customers want to know P (Variation A > Variation B), not P(x > Δe | null hypothesis) ”, “Experimenters want to know that results are right. P(B|A) – the probability of event B occurring, given event A has occurred 3. If you receive a positive test, what is your probability of having D? The American Statistician, 39(2), 83-87. Bayesian inference is an important technique in statistics, and especially in mathematical statistics.Bayesian updating is particularly important in the dynamic analysis of a sequence of data. Ruggles, R.; Brodie, H. (1947). Ultimately, the area of Bayesian statistics is very large and the examples above cover just the tip of the iceberg. Depending on your choice of prior then the maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimates will differ in a pretty transparent way. Will I contract the coronavirus? I think estimating production or population size from serial numbers is interesting if traditional explanatory example. There is a nice story in Cressie & Wickle Statistics for Spatio-Temporal Data, Wiley, about the (bayesian) search of the USS Scorpion, a submarine that was lost in 1968. 42 (237): 72. The posterior belief can act as prior belief when you have newer data and this allows us to continually adjust your beliefs/estimations. if the physician estimate that this probability is $p_{+} = 2/3$ based on observation, then a positive test leads the a post probability of $p_{+|test+} = 0.96$, and of $p_{+|test-} = 0.37$ if the test is negative. The catch-22 here is that to choose the optimal $x$'s, you need to know $\beta$. For example, we can calculate the probability that RU-486, the treatment, is more effective than the control as the sum of the posteriors of the models where \(p<0.5\). 2. The work by (Höhle and Held, 2004) also contains many more references to previous treatment in the literature and there is also more discussion of this problem on this site. For example, you can calculate the probability that between 30% and 40% of the New Zealand population prefers coffee to tea. The dark energy puzzleWhat is a “Bayesian approach” to statistics? This is how Bayes’ Theorem allows us to incorporate prior information. site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. It provides people the tools to update their beliefs in the evidence of new data.” You got that? Kurt, W. (2019). If Jedi weren't allowed to maintain romantic relationships, why is it stressed so much that the Force runs strong in the Skywalker family? Now you come back home wondering if the person you saw was really X. Let’s say you want to assign a probability to this. The example could be this one: the validity of the urine dipslide under daily practice conditions (Family Practice 2003;20:410-2). Lactic fermentation related question: Is there a relationship between pH, salinity, fermentation magic, and heat? This course introduces the Bayesian approach to statistics, starting with the concept of probability and moving to the analysis of data. Do MEMS accelerometers have a lower frequency limit? It's specifically aimed at empirical Bayes methods, but explains the general Bayesian methodology for Normal models. The term Bayesian statistics gets thrown around a lot these days. I accidentally added a character, and then forgot to write them in for the rest of the series, Building algebraic geometry without prime ideals. You can check out this answer, written by yours truly: Are you perhaps conflating Bayes Rule, which can be applied in frequentist probability/estimation, and Bayesian statistics where "probability" is a summary of belief? You want to be convinced that you saw this person. I would like to give students some simple real world examples of researchers incorporating prior knowledge into their analysis so that students can better understand the motivation for why one might want to use Bayesian statistics in the first place. Here you are trying the maximum of a discrete uniform distribution. So, you collect samples … Given that this is a problem that starts with no data and requires information about $\beta$ to choose $x$, I think it's undeniable that the Bayesian method is necessary; even the Frequentist methods instruct one to use prior information. r bayesian-methods rstan bayesian bayesian-inference stan brms rstanarm mcmc regression-models likelihood bayesian-data-analysis hamiltonian-monte-carlo bayesian-statistics bayesian-analysis posterior-probability metropolis-hastings gibbs prior posterior-predictive One Sample and Pair Sample T-tests The Bayesian One Sample Inference procedure provides options for making Bayesian inference on one-sample and two-sample paired t … This book was written as a companion for the Course Bayesian Statistics from the Statistics with R specialization available on Coursera. 1% of people have cancer 2. The posterior distribution we obtain from this Normal-Normal (after a lot of algebra) data model is another Normal distribution. Clearly, you don't know $\beta$ or you wouldn't need to collect data to learn about $\beta$. The posterior precision is $b + n\tau$ and mean is a weighted mean between $a$ and $\bar{y}$, $\frac{b}{b + n\tau} a + \frac{n \tau}{b + n \tau} \bar{y}$. Nice, these are the sort of applications described in the entertaining book. Are there any Pokemon that get smaller when they evolve? Let’s try to understand Bayesian Statistics with an example. All inferences logically follow from Bayes’ theorem. For example, I could look at data that said 30 people out of a potential 100 actually bought ice cream at some shop somewhere. Frequentist statistics tries to eliminate uncertainty by providing estimates and confidence intervals. They want to know how likely a variant’s results are to be best overall. An introduction to the concepts of Bayesian analysis using Stata 14. P (seeing person X | personal experience, social media post) = 0.85. Why does Palpatine believe protection will be disruptive for Padmé? Does a regular (outlet) fan work for drying the bathroom? Bayesian Statistics is about using your prior beliefs, also called as priors, to make assumptions on everyday problems and continuously updating these beliefs with the data that you gather through experience. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. (2004). The full formula also includes an error term to account for random sampling noise. 499. Identifying a weighted coin. $$. You can incorporate past information about a parameter and form a prior distribution for future analysis. "An Empirical Approach to Economic Intelligence in World War II". The probability model for Normal data with known variance and independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Bayesian statistics, Bayes theorem, Frequentist statistics. Here the vector $y = (y_1, ..., y_n)^T$ represents the data gathered. It can produce results that are heavily influenced by the priors. Holes in Bayesian Statistics Andrew Gelmany Yuling Yao z 11 Feb 2020 Abstract Every philosophy has holes, and it is the responsibility of proponents of a philosophy to point out these problems. One can show that for a given $\beta$ there is a set of $x$ values that optimize this problem. For example, if we have two predictors, the equation is: y is the response variable (also called the dependent variable), β’s are the weights (known as the model parameters), x’s are the values of the predictor variab… Are both forms correct in Spanish? From a practical point of view, it might sometimes be difficult to convince subject matter experts who do not agree with the validity of the chosen prior. Bayesian methods may be derived from an axiomatic system, and hence provideageneral, coherentmethodology. the number of the heads (or tails) observed for a certain number of coin flips. We conduct a series of coin flips and record our observations i.e. $$OR(+|test+) = LR(+) \times OR(+) $$ In Bayesian statistics, you calculate the probability that a hypothesis is true. with $H+$ the hypothesis of a urine infection, and $H-$ no urine infection. Thanks for contributing an answer to Cross Validated! It often comes with a high computational cost, especially in models with a large number of parameters. "puede hacer con nosotros" / "puede nos hacer". maximum likelihood) gives us an estimate of $\hat{\theta} = \bar{y}$. I'll use the data set airquality within R. Consider the problem of estimating average wind speeds (MPH). “Bayesian statistics is a mathematical procedure that applies probabilities to statistical problems. Below I include two references, I highly recommend reading Casella's short paper. Let’s call him X. 3. The Bayesian approach can be especially used when there are limited data points for an event. Before delving directly into an example, though, I'd like to review some of the math for Normal-Normal Bayesian data models. This article intends to help understand Bayesian statistics in layman terms and how it is different from other approaches. 1% of women have breast cancer (and therefore 99% do not). The goal is to maximize the information learned for a given sample size (alternatively, minimize the sample size required to reach some level of certainty). maximum likelihood) gives us an estimate of θ ^ = y ¯. Here's a simple example to illustrate some of the advantages of Bayesian data analysis over maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The Bayesian analysis is to start with a prior, find the $x$ that is most informative about $\beta$ given the current knowledge, repeat until the convergence. Bayesian Statistics is a fascinating field and today the centerpiece of many statistical applications in data science and machine learning. Simple construction model showing the interaction between likelihood functions and informed priors One way to do this would be to toss the die n times and find the probability of each face. It provides a natural and principled way of combining prior information with data, within a solid decision theoretical framework. MathJax reference. That said, you can now use any Normal-data textbook example to illustrate this. Of course, there is a third rare possibility where the coin balances on its edge without falling onto either side, which we assume is not a possible outcome of the coin flip for our discussion. The degree of belief may be based on prior knowledge about the event, such as the results of previous experiments, or on personal beliefs about the event. Are you aware of any simple real world examples such as estimating a population mean, proportion, regression, etc where researchers formally incorporate prior information? $$ Most important of all, we offer a number of worked examples: Examples of Bayesian inference calculations General estimation problems. Perhaps the most famous example is estimating the production rate of German tanks during the second World War from tank serial number bands and manufacturer codes done in the frequentist setting by (Ruggles and Brodie, 1947). Bayesian estimation of the size of a population. So, you start looking for other outlets of the same shop. 1. If you already have cancer, you are in the first column. Many of us were trained using a frequentist approach to statistics where parameters are treated as fixed but unknown quantities. You change your reasoning about an event using the extra data that you gather which is also called the posterior probability. It does not tell you how to select a prior. An area of research where I believe the Bayesian methods are absolutely necessary is that of optimal design. These include: 1. The Bayes theorem formulates this concept: Let’s say you want to predict the bias present in a 6 faced die that is not fair. Bayesian Probability in Use. The article gives that $LR(+) = 12.2$, and $LR(-) = 0.29$. “Question closed” notifications experiment results and graduation, MAINTENANCE WARNING: Possible downtime early morning Dec 2, 4, and 9 UTC…. Our goal in developing the course was to provide an introduction to Bayesian inference in decision making without requiring calculus, with the book providing more details and background on Bayesian Inference. We can estimate these parameters using samples from a population, but different samples give us different estimates. The comparison between a t-test and the Bayes Factor t-test 2. No. Bayesian statistics, Bayes theorem, Frequentist statistics. Use of regressionBF to compare probabilities across regression models Many thanks for your time. How to avoid boats on a mainly oceanic world? Bayesian statistics help us with using past observations/experiences to better reason the likelihood of a future event. The idea is to see what a positive result of the urine dipslide imply on the diagnostic of urine infection. As you read through these questions, on the back of your mind, you have already applied some Bayesian statistics to draw some conjecture. Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available. And they want to know the magnitude of the results. y_1, ..., y_n | \theta \sim N(\theta, \tau) 开一个生日会 explanation as to why 开 is used here? Also, it's totally reasonable to analyze the data that comes in a Frequentist method (or ignoring the prior), but it's very hard to argue against using a Bayesian method to choose the next $x$. When we flip a coin, there are two possible outcomes — heads or tails. You also obtain a full distribution, from which you can extract a 95% credible interval using the 2.5 and 97.5 quantiles. Tigers in the jungle. P (seeing person X | personal experience, social media post, outlet search) = 0.36. Integrating previous model's parameters as priors for Bayesian modeling of new data. P (seeing person X | personal experience) = 0.004. Where $OR$ is the odds ratio. In order to illustrate what the two approaches mean, let’s begin with the main definitions of probability. Since you live in a big city, you would think that coming across this person would have a very low probability and you assign it as 0.004. This is the Bayesian approach. Cross Validated is a question and answer site for people interested in statistics, machine learning, data analysis, data mining, and data visualization. 80% of mammograms detect breast cancer when it is there (and therefore 20% miss it). We tell this story to our students and have them perform a (simplified) search using a simulator. Bayesian Statistics partly involves using your prior beliefs, also called as priors, to make assumptions on everyday problems. The researcher has the ability to choose the input values of $x$. Simple real world examples for teaching Bayesian statistics? Bayesian inferences require skills to translate subjective prior beliefs into a mathematically formulated prior. samples is, $$ In this experiment, we are trying to determine the fairness of the coin, using the number of heads (or tails) that … Höhle, Michael, and Leonhard Held. You are now almost convinced that you saw the same person. How to estimate posterior distributions using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC) 3. This article intends to help understand Bayesian statistics in layman terms and how it is different from other approaches. From the menus choose: Analyze > Bayesian Statistics > One Sample Normal rev 2020.12.2.38097, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Cross Validated works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. $$. The likelyhood ratio of the positive result is: $$LR(+) = \frac{test+|H+}{test+|H-} = \frac{Sensibility}{1-specificity} $$ The usefulness of this Bayesian methodology comes from the fact that you obtain a distribution of $\theta | y$ rather than just an estimate since $\theta$ is viewed as a random variable rather than a fixed (unknown) value. However, in this particular example we have looked at: 1. Strategies for teaching the sampling distribution. Here the test is good to detect the infection, but not that good to discard the infection. $$, Classical statistics (i.e. This doesn't take into account the uncertainty of $\beta$. So my P(A = ice cream sale) = 30/100 = 0.3, prior to me knowing anything about the weather. f ( y i | θ, τ) = ( τ 2 π) × e x p ( − τ ( y i − θ) 2 / 2) Classical statistics (i.e. Think Bayes: Bayesian Statistics in Python. " Why is training regarding the loss of RAIM given so much more emphasis than training regarding the loss of SBAS? Recent developments in Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methodology facilitate the implementation of Bayesian analyses of complex data sets containing missing observations and multidimensional outcomes. You could just use the MLE's to select $x$, but, This doesn't give you a starting point; for $n = 0$, $\hat \beta$ is undefined, Even after taking several samples, the Hauck-Donner effect means that $\hat \beta$ has a positive probability of being undefined (and this is very common for even samples of, say 10, in this problem). Bayesian inference is a different perspective from Classical Statistics (Frequentist). As per this definition, the probability of a coin toss resulting in heads is 0.5 because rolling the die many times over a long period results roughly in those odds. Let’s assume you live in a big city and are shopping, and you momentarily see a very famous person. The Bayesian method just does so in a much more efficient and logically justified manner. The prior distribution is central to Bayesian statistics and yet remains controversial unless there is a physical sampling mechanism to justify a choice of One option is to seek 'objective' prior distributions that can be used in situations where judgemental input is supposed to be minimized, such as in scientific publications. y_1, ..., y_n | \theta \sim N(\theta, \sigma^2) Boca Raton, Fla.: Chapman & Hall/CRC. This differs from a number of other interpretations of probability, such as the frequentist interpretation that views probability as the limit of the relative frequency of an Here the prior knowledge is the probability to have a urine infection based on the clinical analysis of the potentially sick person before making the test. What is the probability that it would rain this week? The Normal distribution is conjugate to the Normal distribution. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. A mix of both Bayesian and frequentist reasoning is the new era. Consider a random sample of n continuous values denoted by $y_1, ..., y_n$. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. It only takes a minute to sign up. This is commonly called as the frequentist approach. Bayesian Statistics Interview Questions and Answers 1. The probability of an event is measured by the degree of belief. Let me explain it with an example: Suppose, out of all the 4 championship races (F1) between Niki Lauda and James hunt, Niki won 3 times while James managed only 1. Even after the MLE is finite, its likely to be incredibly unstable, thus wasting many samples (i.e if $\beta = 1$ but $\hat \beta = 5$, you will pick values of $x$ that would have been optimal if $\beta = 5$, but it's not, resulting in very suboptimal $x$'s). A simple Bayesian inference example using construction. It provides interpretable answers, such as “the true parameter Y has a probability of 0.95 of falling in a 95% credible interval.”. There is no correct way to choose a prior. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. Most problems can be solved using both approaches. Chapter 3, Downey, Allen. The article describes a cancer testing scenario: 1. One simple example of Bayesian probability in action is rolling a die: Traditional frequency theory dictates that, if you throw the dice six times, you should roll a six once. You find 3 other outlets in the city. An alternative analysis from a Bayesian point of view with informative priors has been done by (Downey, 2013), and with an improper uninformative priors by (Höhle and Held, 2004). •Example 1 : the probability of a certain medical test being positive is 90%, if a patient has disease D. 1% of the population have the disease, and the test records a false positive 5% of the time. Ask yourself, what is the probability that you would go to work tomorrow? Why isn't bayesian statistics more popular for statistical process control? Your first idea is to simply measure it directly. Here is an example of estimating a mean, $\theta$, from Normal continuous data. Journal of the American Statistical Association. What's wrong with XKCD's Frequentists vs. Bayesians comic? Bayesian methods provide a complete paradigm for both statistical inference and decision mak-ing under uncertainty. \theta | y \sim N(\frac{b}{b + n\tau} a + \frac{n \tau}{b + n \tau} \bar{y}, \frac{1}{b + n\tau}) The frequentist view of linear regression is probably the one you are familiar with from school: the model assumes that the response variable (y) is a linear combination of weights multiplied by a set of predictor variables (x). Casella, G. (1985). O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 2013. How is the Q and Q' determined the first time in JK flip flop? We will learn about the philosophy of the Bayesian approach as well as how to implement it for common types of data. Discussion paper//Sonderforschungsbereich 386 der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 2006. $$, where $\tau = 1 / \sigma^2$; $\tau$ is known as the precision, With this notation, the density for $y_i$ is then, $$ What if you are told that it raine… Say, you find a curved surface on one edge and a flat surface on the other edge, then you could give more probability to the faces near the flat edges as the die is more likely to stop rolling at those edges. Bayesian Statistics: Background In the frequency interpretation of probability, the probability of an event is limiting proportion of times the event occurs in an infinite sequence of independent repetitions of the experiment. Bayesian Statistics The Fun Way. Bayesian statistics allows one to formally incorporate prior knowledge into an analysis. Similar examples could be constructed around the story of the lost flight MH370; you might want to look at Davey et al., Bayesian Methods in the Search for MH370, Springer-Verlag. Which game is this six-sided die with two sets of runic-looking plus, minus and empty sides from? https://www.quantstart.com/articles/Bayesian-Statistics-A-Beginners-Guide The Bayes’ theorem is expressed in the following formula: Where: 1. Bayesian statistics deals exclusively with probabilities, so you can do things like cost-benefit studies and use the rules of probability to answer the specific questions you are asking – you can even use it to determine the optimum decision to take in the face of the uncertainties. This is where Bayesian … I would like to find some "real world examples" for teaching Bayesian statistics. Why does the Gemara use gamma to compare shapes and not reish or chaf sofit? Let’s consider an example: Suppose, from 4 basketball matches, John won 3 and Harry won only one. A choice of priors for this Normal data model is another Normal distribution for $\theta$. Bayesian statistics by example. 9.6% of mammograms detect breast cancer when it’s not there (and therefore 90.4% correctly return a negative result).Put in a table, the probabilities look like this:How do we read it? Use MathJax to format equations. This can be an iterative process, whereby a prior belief is replaced by a posterior belief based on additional data, after which the posterior belief becomes a new prior belief to be refined based on even more data. The term “Bayesian” comes from the prevalent usage of Bayes’ theorem, which was named after the Reverend Thomas Bayes, an 18th-century Presbyterian minister. Additionally, each square is assigned a conditional probability of finding the vessel if it's actually in that square, based on things like water depth. Of course, there may be variations, but it will average out over time. I didn’t think so. The Bayesian One Sample Inference: Normal procedure provides options for making Bayesian inference on one-sample and two-sample paired t-test by characterizing posterior distributions. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Service. Each square is assigned a prior probability of containing the lost vessel, based on last known position, heading, time missing, currents, etc. To begin, a map is divided into squares. Which statistical software is suitable for teaching an undergraduate introductory course of statistics in social sciences? P(A|B) – the probability of event A occurring, given event B has occurred 2. The next day, since you are following this person X in social media, you come across her post with her posing right in front of the same store. The current world population is about 7.13 billion, of which 4.3 billion are adults. Or as more typically written by Bayesian, $$ How do EMH proponents explain Black Monday (1987)? So, if you were to bet on the winner of next race, who would he be ? Preface. These distributions are combined to prioritize map squares that have the highest likelihood of producing a positive result - it's not necessarily the most likely place for the ship to be, but the most likely place of actually finding the ship. The Mathematics Behind Communication and Transmitting Information, Solving (mathematical) problems through simulations via NumPy, Manifesto for a more expansive mathematics curriculum, How to Turn the Complex Mathematics of Vector Calculus Into Simple Pictures, It excels at combining information from different sources, Bayesian methods make your assumptions very explicit. P-values and hypothesis tests don’t actually tell you those things!”. Explain the introduction to Bayesian Statistics And Bayes Theorem? Now, you are less convinced that you saw this person. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. If you do not proceed with caution, you can generate misleading results. Bayesian statistics tries to preserve and refine uncertainty by adjusting individual beliefs in light of new evidence. $OR(+|test+)$ is the odd ratio of having a urine infection knowing that the test is positive, and $OR(+)$ the prior odd ratio. Another way is to look at the surface of the die to understand how the probability could be distributed.

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